Army Chemical Review

SUMMER 2013

Army Chemical Review presents professional information about Chemical Corps functions related to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, smoke, flame, and civil support operations.

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solving. Effectiveness in these settings can only be achieved if organizations are willing to incorporate this approach into their governing statements and to adjust the organizational structure where necessary. The selection of an internalization strategy is one of the most important organizational responsibilities. When it comes to internalization, organizations typically follow one of the following strategies: y Cultural dominance. Organizations that subscribe to the cultural dominance strategy are geared toward the traditional culture; new, incoming cultures must adjust to the existing culture. y Cultural compromise. Under the strategy of cultural compromise, attempts are made to integrate different rules, regulations, and attitudes into a new organizational structure and management style. y Cultural synergies. The development of a completely new organizational structure and management style based on the different cultural backgrounds of various players and interest groups comprises the strategy of cultural synergies. Leaders act according to the organization's chosen internalization strategy for cross-cultural interaction. Organizational culture is one of the main factors that determines the quality of intercultural interaction. Other important organizational responsibilities include selecting the right people and preparing them for leading roles. The selection of leaders based on cross-cultural capabilities; deployment-related, cross-cultural training programs; or opportunities for informal interaction between people from different cultures has an impact on individual leadership effectiveness. However, the type and quality of cross-cultural training are also important. And depending on the mission, cultural distance, and previous experience, the cross-cultural training may vary from a short, factual information session about another culture to ongoing, more experiential training including factual knowledge instruction; cultural awareness training; cultural sensitivity training; language training; or advanced, short-term placements to be completed before taking on a leading role in a new environment. Deterioration of Political Situations in Potentially Aggressive Environments Deteriorating political situations, such as the current situation in Syria, might result in the threat or use of WMD, and partners might receive an intelligence alert indicating that a terrorist possesses CBRN materials or WMD. Should measures to de-escalate the crisis prove ineffective, the partners must be prepared to employ military options in response to the threat. Defenses to defeat the use of WMD; to protect forces, populations, and territories against WMD attacks; and to explore ways to assist partners could be employed. Coalition security forces are to be ready to disrupt WMD delivery, respond to the source of a WMD attack, mitigate the effects of the WMD attack, and dismantle or destroy residual WMD capabilities to prevent follow-on attacks. 46 Changes in political circumstances or the general situational context infuence leader behavior. This means that the teams in which the leaders are integrated are more important than ever. Successful cross-cultural teams develop and defne a new group culture and promote mutual trust between team members from different cultures. This cross-cultural harmony provides members with the will and ability to communicate with each other and to share their problem-solving and decisionmaking skills. The more culturally harmonious the group, the more likely the group members are to cooperate and make the right decisions. Individuals tend to override their personal motivations and develop realistic alternatives and solutions when they are deeply involved in a cohesive, within-group decisionmaking process. Conclusion The principles for sustainable international cooperation are of fundamental importance in CBRN security. The combination of all regional, national, and international CBRN components and the incorporation of these components in a comprehensive approach are effective strategies in dealing with CBRN threats. This requires a high level of collaboration among various, potential stakeholders. Within this international security environment, crossculturally competent leader behavior depends on individual cross-cultural competencies, the ability to understand and manage the dynamics of a team, the capacity to work in a given organizational structure and to improve that structure whenever possible, an understanding of the importance of the general context of the mission, and the ability to make appropriate situational assessments. Most multinational teams, units, or organizations involved in CBRN interventions are subjected to an environment of utmost urgency and life-threatening risks from the frst day of deployment. Therefore, Soldiers and leaders must be prepared for, and rehearsed in, cross-cultural interaction, problem solving, and command execution. Providing training in crosscultural and problem-solving skills is a promising way to increase leaders' ability to act effectively in this complex environment. Endnotes: 1 National Military Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 13 February 2006. A jihad is a holy war that is waged as a religious duty on behalf of Islam. 2 References: Alejandro P. Briceno, "The Use of Cultural Studies in Military Operations," Command and Staff College, Marine Corps University, U.S. Marine Corps, 2008, , accessed on 16 April 2013. Joseph J. DiStefano and and Martha L. Maznevski, "Creating Value With Diverse Teams in Global Management," Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 29, No.1, September 2000, pp. 45–63,

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