Army Chemical Review

SUMMER 2013

Army Chemical Review presents professional information about Chemical Corps functions related to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, smoke, flame, and civil support operations.

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secure videoconferences with the 48th Chemical Brigade. It is recommended that in-process reviews continue to be conducted as a component of the exercise battle rhythm and that they be held on a weekly or biweekly basis. The brigade site identifcation should be maintained as a standard tie-in to allow for constant participation. ● Torch party/advance echelon. In contrast to the minimally manned parties of the previous Warpath III exercise, the 48th Chemical Brigade deployed robust torch parties and advance echelons to meet 2ID requirements, while 2ID continued steady-state operations throughout the nonduty days leading up to the commencement of this year's Warpath III. The coordination and preparation of systems accomplished once these parties/echelons arrived enabled the brigade to rapidly become established and integrated before combat operations began. It is recommended that robust torch parties and advance echelons continue to be deployed to ensure that suffcient leadership and manpower are available to address issues before the deployment of the main body. A liaison offcer should be provided to the 2ID staff and should deploy as a component of the torch party in support of brigade deployment planning. Areas to Improve The Spartan team identifed several challenges during this culminating combined training exercise. Many of the challenges were associated with the coordination and planning that were necessary before arriving on the peninsula. The challenges included— ● Staff integration (horizontal). The staff provides the commander with the means to visualize, synchronize, and deconfict operations. This means that the staff section must maintain situational awareness of ongoing operations and be prepared to integrate staff functions in order to provide the commander with fexible options. Several communications challenges related to the composition and layout of the TOC were identifed. It is recommended that face-toface coordination be conducted when practical. The number of injection points (Microsoft® SharePoint, Ventrilo, Command Post of the Future) can be overwhelming, and various technical diffculties are possible. Units should use integrated plans and operations teams to conduct rapid operation evaluations so that they can provide the commander with clear options for leveraging combat power at the decisive point. ● Knowledge management. Tactical command, control, communications, computer, and intelligence systems have evolved signifcantly since the days of frequency modulation (FM) communication. The use of multiple systems (SharePoint, Combined Information Data Network Exchange Source, Command Post of the Future) across multiple networks (nonsecure Internet protocol router, secure Internet protocol router, Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange) improves the ability to share information, but creates a more complex environment in which to navigate information. It is recommended that a brigade knowledge management standing operating Summer 2013 procedure be developed to standardize how products are disseminated. In addition, a steady-state tactical assistance center network, an exercise network, and a prepopulated operations network should be developed to prevent the confusion of exercise products with real-world products. ● Key enabler integration. During the Warpath III exercise, the 48th Chemical Brigade integrated and employed taskorganized enablers—including an EOD team, a nuclear disablement team, and a CBRNE Analytical Remediation Activity light, mobile, expeditionary laboratory. Although each organization provided a subject matter expert, those experts were not incorporated into plans and activities until after deployment. Because the brigade staff had never before integrated such capabilities, they had a minimal understanding of the formations. This impacted the brigade ability to effectively plan for employment and sustainment. It is recommended that technical enablers be integrated into exercises at the brigade level and below and that predeployment staff training be conducted to educate the staff and to support the development of preexercise plans. Enablers should also be included in academics and in deployment operations. Conclusion As long as the CBRNE threat persists, the opportunity to standardize CBRNE defense tactics, techniques, and procedures will be available in the Korean theater of operations. The Korean theater of operations also implicitly serves as grounds for the 48th Chemical Brigade to evaluate and improve its manning requirements, its training requirements, and the equipment necessary for its Soldiers to accomplish their unique, complex mission. According to Colonel Maria Zumwalt, commander of the 48th Chemical Brigade, "Other theaters are looking at Korea to set the standard for CBRNE operations. As the CBRNE subject matter experts in this exercise, we need to ensure that we have a greater understanding of the Korean theater and our own unique capabilities." The Warpath III exercises, along with constant communication between participating units before and after the training events, are necessary to ensure that lessons learned are applied and expanded for future task forces and that best practices continue to be routinely executed. In addition, conducting combined and integrated training with sister U.S. and ROK units is essential to increasing interoperability and adaptability. Maximizing knowledge across national and cultural boundaries and exploring ways that we can employ others' assets ultimately improve mission readiness and determine how we decisively respond to evolving WMD threats. Acknowledgement: The 110th and 23d Chemical Battalions contributed to this article. Captain Hamm is the assistant intelligence offcer (S-2), 48th Chemical Brigade. She holds a bachelor's degree in English from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 51

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