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it must be deliberate and clear on its end goals. Early efforts must focus on the most critical security risks and on deepening the community's understanding of the landscape in order to develop affordable and sustainable long-term regional strategies."58 Endnotes: Kevin Wickel, "Cooperative Threat Reduction: Reducing Biological Risks in East Africa," 9 March 2011, , accessed on 5 February 2013. 1 2 Mike Pfanz, "Why Senator Lugar Is Worried About Bioterrorism in East Africa," The Christian Science Monitor, 12 November 2010, p. 5, , accessed on 13 February 2013. 3 Ibid. 4 Wickel, 2011. 5 Richard Lugar, "Countering More Threats, Faster," NunnLugar Global: The Africa Mission, November 2010, pp. 1–5, , accessed on 18 March 2013. 6 Meera Selva, "Hippo Deaths Raise Fears of Anthrax Epidemic," The Independent, 12 November 2004, , accessed on 19 February 2013. 7 Ibid. 8 Richard L. Crowell, "Likely Pathogens in Biological Terrorism," Chapter 10 in Countering Biological Terrorism in the U.S.: An Understanding of Issues and Status (by David W. Siegrist and Janice M. Graham), Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, New York, 1999, p. 131. 9 Anthony H. Cordesman, Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland, Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2002, p. 153. 10 Eric Croddy, Chemical and Biological Warfare: An Annotated Bibliography, Copernicus, New York, 2002, p. 206. 11 Thomas V. Inglesby et al., "Anthrax as a Biological Weapon, 2002: Updated Recommendations for Management," The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 287, No. 17, 1 May 2002, , accessed on 19 February 2013. 12 "Amerithrax or Anthrax Investigation," Federal Bureau of Investigation, , accessed on 19 February 2013. Deepak K. Bhalla and David B. Warheit, "Biological Agents With Potential for Misuse: A Historical Perspective and Defensive Measures," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 15 August 2004, p. 73. 14 Stephen H. Goldstein, "Anthrax at Brentwood: The Cleanup," Homeland Defense Journal, March 2004, p. 27. 16 Lugar, 2010, p. 4. 17 Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Act, 1st Session, 109th Congress, 8 February 2005. 18 "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Information Packet," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 9 April 2010, , accessed on 19 February 2013. 19 Richard Preston, The Hot Zone, Anchor Books, New York, 1995. "Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, , accessed on 19 February 2013. (Note: This data does not include statistics from the latest Ebola outbreak [which took place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in Uganda] reported by the World Health Organization in September 2012.) 20 21 Ibid. 22 Leonard A. Cole, The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1997, p. 3. 23 "Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses," fact sheet, Center for Biosecurity, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, , accessed on 20 February 2013. 24 Kyle B. Olson, "Aum Shinrikyo: Once and Future Threat?" Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 5, No. 4, July– August 1999, p. 514, , accessed on 20 February 2013. 25 Cole, 1997, pp. 2–3. David E. Kaplan and Andrew Marshall, The Cult at the End of the World: The Terrifying Story of the Aum Doomsday Cult, From the Subways of Tokyo to the Nuclear Arsenals of Russia, Crown Publishers, New York, 1996, pp. 96–97. 26 27 Kaplan and Marshall, 1996, pp. 93–96. 28 Olson, 1999, p. 514. Josh Kron, "Uganda Seen as a Front Line in the Bioterrorism Fight," The New York Times, 10 November 2010, , accessed on 20 February 2013. 29 30 13 Summer 2013 Inglesby et al., 2002. 15 Pfanz, 2010, p. 5. 31 Richard Lugar, speech delivered as part of the Nunn-Lugar Global Africa Mission, Madrid, Spain, 8 November 2010. 32 Wickel, 2011. (continued on page 64) 55

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