Army Chemical Review

SUMMER 2013

Army Chemical Review presents professional information about Chemical Corps functions related to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, smoke, flame, and civil support operations.

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("Critical Nature of Building . . ." continued from page 55) 33 Lugar, speech, 2010. 34 Lugar, "Countering More Threats, Faster," 2010, p. 1. 35 Robert Block, "Bitter Researchers Are Cause for Concern in Germ Warfare," Wall Street Journal, 20 May 2002, , accessed on 4 March 2013. 36 Ibid. 37 Stephen Burgess and Helen Purkitt, The Rollback of South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare Program, U.S. Air Force Institute for National Security Studies, February 2001, p. 20. "South Africa," country profle, Nuclear Threat Initiative, July 2012, , accessed on 25 February 2013. 38 39 Burgess and Purkitt, 2001, pp. 16–18. 40 Tom Mangold, "Plague War: What Happened in South Africa?" Public Broadcasting System: Frontline, , accessed on 20 February 2013. 51 "Biological Threat Reduction Program," Defense Threat Reduction Agency & USSTRATCOM Center for Combating WMD, , accessed on 28 February 2013. 52 Wickel, 2011. "President Obama Releases National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," The White House, , accessed on 28 February 2013. (The acronym PROTECT stands for: Promote global health security; Reinforce norms of safe and responsible conduct; Obtain timely and accurate insight on current and emerging risks; Take reasonable steps to reduce the potential for exploitation; Expand our capability to prevent, attribute, and apprehend; Communicate effectively with all stakeholders; and Transform the international dialogue on biological threats.) 53 54 Personal discussion with offcials from DTRA and the Offce of the Secretary of Defense for Policy, 16 November 2011. 56 41 "South Africa," 2012. Ibid. 55 Ibid. "AFRICOM: Promoting Partnership for Global Security in Africa," Testimony by U.S. Department of State Acting Assistant Secretary Donald Yamamoto, 26 July 2011, Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, and Human Rights, U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee, , accessed on 4 March 2013. 57 42 Burgess and Purkitt, 2001, pp. 3–38. 43 Tom Mangold and Jeff Goldberg, Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological Warfare, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1999, pp. 214–282. 44 "South Africa," 2012. 45 Richard Lugar, "The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program," , accessed on 31 January 2013. 46 Paul Tinder, "Cooperative Threat Reduction Set to Expand," BioPrepWatch, 15 April 2011, , accessed on 26 February 2013. 47 Lugar, "The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program." Personal discussion with offcials from DTRA and the Offce of the Secretary of Defense for Policy, 16 November 2011. 48 49 The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense: From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships, Committee on Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies Press, 2007, , accessed on 26 February 2013. 50 Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Estimate, Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, DTRA, February 2010, , accessed on 26 February 2013. 64 58 Lugar, 8 November 2010. References: Spencer Ackerman, "Pentagon Looks to Africa for Next Bio Threat," 23 February 2011, , accessed on 13 February 2013. Glenn Hess, "Biosecurity Effort Expands to Africa: U.S. Seeks to Secure Deadly Pathogens to Prevent Their Use in Bioterror Attacks," Chemical & Engineering News, Vol. 89, No. 15, 11 April 2011, pp. 30–32, , accessed on 13 February 2013. Dr. Kerr, a retired chemical offcer, is a senior chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) analyst with the Joint Requirements Offce for CBRN Defense (J-8). He holds master's and doctorate degrees in biodefense from George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, a master's degree in national security studies from the National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C., and a master's degree in political science from Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama. Army Chemical Review

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